Academic Journal Writing and Types of Journals

*Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu1, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu2, Chibunna Matthew Igwe3, Esther Ugo Alum4,5, Okechukwu Paul- Chima Ugwu5, Val Hyginus Udoka Eze5, Fabian Chukwudi Ogenyi5, Jovita Nnenna Ugwu5, Chinyere N. Ugwu5, Micheal. B. Okon5, Chidinma Esther Eze6 and Jude U. Aleke5

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University Uganda.

2School of Nursing Science, Kampala International University Uganda.

3Department of Public Health, Kampala International University Uganda.

4Department of Biochemistry, Ebonyi State University, Abakalliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

5Department of Publication and Extension, Kampala International University Uganda

6Faculty of Education Kampala International University Uganda.

*Corresponding author: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kampala International University, Uganda,, ORCID: 0000-0002-4538-0161


Academic journal writing serves as the lifeblood of scholarly communication, fostering the dissemination of knowledge and innovation within various academic disciplines. This seminar paper provides a comprehensive exploration of the significance of academic journal writing and an in-depth analysis of the diverse types of scholarly journals available. The paper delves into the fundamental structure and components of academic journal articles, emphasizing their pivotal role in presenting original research, conducting literature reviews, and fostering academic discourse. Additionally, it outlines the distinct characteristics of various types of journals, including research journals, review journals, scholarly versus trade journals, open access journals, and interdisciplinary journals. Furthermore, the seminar paper offers crucial insights into the selection criteria for appropriate journals, highlighting considerations such as scope, audience, impact factor, and adherence to submission guidelines. Understanding these factors aids researchers, scholars, and academics in effectively navigating the complex landscape of academic publishing, ensuring the successful dissemination of their work within their respective fields. This seminar paper serves as a valuable guide for individuals involved in academic research, offering a comprehensive understanding of academic journal writing and equipping them with the knowledge necessary to navigate the scholarly publishing landscape effectively. This abstract encapsulates the key points and objectives covered in the seminar paper on academic journal writing and types of journals, providing a concise overview of its contents and significance within the academic community.

Keywords: Publication, Journals, academic writing, research, review papers


Academic journal writing stands as an indelible pillar within the scholarly realm, serving as the conduit through which the vast reservoirs of knowledge, groundbreaking discoveries, and profound insights traverse the corridors of academia [10]. These meticulously crafted manuscripts encapsulate the essence of innovation, critique, and the relentless pursuit of enlightenment inherent in academic pursuits. Moreover, these narratives etched in ink symbolize the collective intellect, showcasing the relentless endeavors of scholars, researchers, and thinkers to illuminate the path towards progress within their respective domains [2]. This seminar embarks on a comprehensive journey through the labyrinth of academic journal writing, unraveling its intrinsic significance and exploring the myriad types of journals that constitute the tapestry of scholarly discourse. We delve into the nuanced artistry of composing manuscripts that delineate original research, synthesize existing knowledge, and serve as the bedrock for intellectual dialogues within the academic echelons.

Navigating the Landscape of Academic Journal Writing

Academic journal articles, akin to intellectual symphonies, orchestrate the harmonious amalgamation of structured prose, critical analysis, and empirical revelations [3]. These expositions follow a meticulous architecture, embracing the quintessential elements of abstracts, introductions, methodologies, results, discussions, and conclusions. Each segment interlaces seamlessly, fostering an immersive journey through the researcher’s inquiry, methodology, findings, and the broader implications within the scholarly landscape [4-5].

The Mosaic of Journal Diversity

Beyond the homogeneity of research journals lie a plethora of diverse forms catering to distinct niches and purposes within the scholarly tapestry [6]. Ranging from the pioneering research journals that thrive on the vitality of novel discoveries to the illuminative review journals that illuminate the scholarly terrain through comprehensive synthesis, the spectrum encompasses a panoply of avenues for scholarly dissemination [7]. Scholarly versus trade journals, open access portals, interdisciplinary platforms, and the nuanced contours of professional publications – each carve their unique niche, fostering the dissemination of knowledge across varied dimensions of academia.

Objectives of Exploration

This paper aims to elucidate the pivotal role of academic journal writing in the dissemination and consolidation of scholarly discourse. It endeavors to unravel the intrinsic fabric that weaves together the diverse types of journals, shedding light on their unique attributes, distinctive functions, and the inherent significance they harbor within the multifaceted terrain of academia. In traversing this expanse, we embark on a journey of understanding, navigating the intricate pathways that traverse the realm of academic journal writing. We seek to equip scholars, researchers, and enthusiasts alike with the compass to navigate this landscape, aiding in the judicious selection of appropriate outlets for their intellectual pursuits.Join us on this odyssey through the corridors of scholarly publication as we unravel the essence of academic journal writing and unfurl the canvas painted with the diverse hues of journals that adorn the scholarly sphere.

Importance of Academic Journal Writing

Academic journals are the primary means through which researchers disseminate new findings, theories, and discoveries to the academic community and beyond [8]. Contributions to journals help advance knowledge within specific disciplines, forming the foundation for further research and innovation. Journals foster scholarly communication, enabling researchers to engage in discussions, debates, and critiques of each other’s work [9]. They serve as platforms for collaboration among researchers, facilitating the exchange of ideas and fostering interdisciplinary approaches. Academic journals maintain quality and credibility through rigorous peer review, ensuring that published work meets scholarly standards [10]. Publishing in reputable journals contributes to a researcher’s academic credibility, recognition, and career advancement. Journals provide a documented archive of research over time, allowing for the retrieval of historical information and tracking the evolution of ideas within a field. They serve as references for future studies, aiding scholars in building upon existing knowledge and avoiding duplication of research. Journals, especially open access ones, have global accessibility, allowing researchers from diverse backgrounds and geographical locations to access and benefit from the shared knowledge [11]. Influential research published in journals can impact policies, practices, and societal norms, thereby affecting various aspects of society and industries. Publishing in reputable journals is often a criterion for academic career progression, including tenure, promotions, and funding opportunities. It helps researchers establish themselves as experts in their respective fields, contributing to their academic influence and career development. In essence, academic journal writing plays a vital role in advancing knowledge, fostering collaboration, establishing credibility, and shaping the direction of various academic disciplines [12]. Its significance extends beyond the dissemination of individual research findings, serving as a cornerstone of scholarly communication and progress within the academic landscape.

Academic Journal Writing: A Detailed Overview

Academic journal writing serves as a crucial medium for researchers, scholars, and academics to communicate their findings, ideas, and contributions to the academic community. Sharing original research, theories, and insights within specific disciplines. Contributing to the development and advancement of academic fields. Engaging in discourse, debates, and collaboration among peers.

Structure and Components

Academic journal articles typically follow a standardized structure comprising distinct sections [13]:

  • Title: That is the topic of the work which should be concise and catchy
  • Abstract: A concise summary of the study’s purpose, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Introduction: Contextualizes the research problem, reviews relevant literature, and states research objectives.
  • Methodology: Details the research methodology, including data collection, analysis, and experimental procedures.
  • Results: Presents the findings through data, statistics, or qualitative analysis.
  • Discussion: Interprets the results, compares findings with existing literature, and discusses implications and limitations.
  • Conclusion: Summarizes key findings and suggests future research directions.

Writing Style and Language

Clear and concise language to convey complex ideas effectively. Using an academic tone with appropriate vocabulary and terminology. Accurate referencing of sources following prescribed citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.). Presenting information objectively and avoiding biased language or opinions [14].

Peer Review Process

Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by experts in the field. Peer reviewers provide feedback, suggestions, and critiques to enhance the quality of the research. Ensuring adherence to academic rigor and ethical guidelines before publication [15].

Targeting the Right Journal

Ensuring that the research aligns with the focus and aims of the journal. Identifying the target audience and reaching the intended readership. Considering the impact factor, journal rankings, and credibility within the field [16].

Publication Process

Following journal-specific formatting guidelines and submission requirements. Initial screening by editors for suitability and adherence to guidelines. Incorporating feedback from peer reviewers and revising the manuscript accordingly. Final acceptance, copyediting, and eventual publication of the article [17]. Academic journal writing is the cornerstone of scholarly communication, allowing researchers to contribute to the collective knowledge within their disciplines. Understanding the structure, style, peer review process, and publication strategies is crucial for researchers aiming to effectively disseminate their work and contribute meaningfully to their fields.

This overview provides an in-depth understanding of the various aspects and considerations involved in academic journal writing, offering guidance for researchers navigating the process of preparing and submitting manuscripts for publication in academic journals.

Different types of academic journals papers

Certainly, academic journals encompass various types of papers or articles, each serving distinct purposes within scholarly communication.  Present novel findings, methodologies, or theories derived from original research. Typically follow a standardized structure, including abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Undergo rigorous peer review to ensure quality and validity of the research [18].

Review Articles

Offer comprehensive reviews, analyses, or summaries of existing research in a specific field. Conduct a critical analysis of multiple studies on a particular topic. Do not present new findings but rather synthesize and evaluate existing literature [18].

Case Studies

Present detailed examinations of specific cases or instances, often in fields like medicine, law, or business. Offer insights into practical applications, problem-solving, or unique scenarios within a specific context [17].

Literature Reviews

Summarize and evaluate existing literature on a particular subject or topic. Identify trends, controversies, and gaps in current research to guide future studies [17].

Theoretical Papers

Develop or critique theoretical frameworks, models, or concepts within a field. Propose new theories, frameworks, or conceptual paradigms without necessarily presenting empirical data [18].

Methodological Papers

Discuss and evaluate research methodologies, techniques, or approaches used in a specific discipline. Introduce new methodologies or modifications to existing research methods [17].

Commentary or Opinion Pieces

Offer personal viewpoints, opinions, or critiques on current issues, trends, or developments within a field. Might not include empirical data but provide insights and reflections on trends or controversies [18].

 Short Communications

Concise presentations of preliminary research findings, case reports, or noteworthy observations. Aimed at quickly sharing important findings or emerging trends within the academic community [17].

Editorial Papers

Written by journal editors, discussing current issues, policies, or advancements within the field. Set the tone, direction, or vision for the journal or highlight key publications [19]. Each type of academic journal paper serves a specific function within scholarly discourse, catering to diverse research methodologies, objectives, and modes of communication. Understanding these variations helps  researchers choose the appropriate format to effectively communicate their findings and contribute to the academic dialogue within their respective fields.

Types of Academic Journals

Certainly! Academic journals come in various types, each serving specific purposes within the scholarly landscape. Here are some common types of academic journals:

1. Research Journals

Publishing original research articles presenting new findings, methodologies, or theories within specific academic disciplines. Typically undergo rigorous peer review to ensure the credibility and quality of the research. Aim to advance knowledge within a field by contributing novel insights or empirical evidence [20].

2. Review Journals

Focus on reviewing and synthesizing previously published research within a specific field or topic. Provide comprehensive analyses, meta-analyses, or systematic reviews of existing scholarly literature. Offer critical evaluations of methodologies, trends, and gaps in the literature [20].

3. Scholarly or Academic Journals

Intended for researchers, scholars, and academics within specific disciplines. Emphasize original research articles, book reviews, and theoretical discussions. Maintain rigorous peer review to ensure high-quality contributions [20].

4. Trade Journals

Cater to professionals, practitioners, and individuals within specific industries or professions. Offer practical information, news, and trends relevant to the field or industry. May have editorial review but often less stringent peer review compared to academic journals [20].

5. Open Access Journals

Provide free, unrestricted access to published articles online. Authors often retain copyright, allowing wider dissemination and accessibility of their work. Span across diverse academic fields and disciplines [19].

6. Interdisciplinary Journals

Welcome contributions from multiple academic disciplines. Encourage collaboration, exchange of ideas, and interdisciplinary research. Aim to bridge gaps between different fields and facilitate diverse perspectives [18].

7. Professional Journals

Focus on articles beneficial for professional development, continuing education, and practical application. Provide updates on industry practices, regulatory changes, and professional advancements [17].

8. Predatory Journals

Often exploit the scholarly publishing model for financial gain, lacking proper peer review and editorial standards. Mislead researchers with promises of quick publication but lack credibility and academic rigor [21]. Understanding the distinctions between these types of academic journals is crucial for researchers in choosing appropriate outlets to publish their work. Each type serves different audiences and purposes within the academic and professional realms, impacting visibility, credibility, and the dissemination of scholarly information.

Selecting an Appropriate Journal

Selecting an appropriate journal for publishing your research is a critical step that can significantly impact the visibility, credibility, and reception of your work within the academic community. Clearly define the scope, objectives, and key findings of your research. Determine the audience your research aims to reach, whether it’s scholars, practitioners, or a broader readership [22]. Utilize databases, academic libraries, and online platforms to identify journals relevant to your research field. Evaluate whether the journal’s scope aligns with your research topic and objectives. Assess the impact factor, if available, as it reflects the average number of citations articles in the journal receive. Consider the journal’s ranking within its field or discipline to gauge its reputation and influence. Investigate the journal’s peer review process to ensure high academic standards and credibility. Review the expertise and reputation of the journal’s editorial board members. Look at previously published articles in the journal to assess their relevance to your research area. Evaluate the quality of published research and whether it aligns with your research standards. Ensure your research adheres to the journal’s formatting, citation style, and word count requirements [22]. Understand the submission process, including deadlines and submission platforms. Consider whether the journal offers open access options to increase the visibility and accessibility of your research. Seek advice from peers, mentors, or colleagues familiar with the publishing landscape in your field. Request feedback from mentors or advisors on the suitability of the chosen journal for your research. Prepare a list of alternative journals that align with your research in case your primary choice does not accept your submission. Selecting an appropriate journal involves thorough research, consideration of various factors, and alignment of your research objectives with the journal’s scope and audience. Making an informed decision contributes to successful publication and dissemination of your research findings within the academic community.

Different review papers for journals [18]

Certainly, Review papers play a crucial role in synthesizing existing research, providing comprehensive analyses, and offering critical insights within various academic disciplines. Here are different types of review papers commonly found in academic journals:

  1. Narrative Review

Summarizes and discusses key findings, themes, or trends in a specific field. Structured as an essay or narrative, presenting a coherent story based on existing literature. Often includes the author’s interpretations, perspectives, and opinions on the literature reviewed.

  1. Systematic Review

Follows a rigorous and systematic approach to reviewing literature. Involves a predefined set of criteria for literature selection, data extraction, and analysis. Aims to minimize bias and provide a thorough, unbiased synthesis of existing research.

  1. Meta-Analysis

Statistical method that combines results from multiple studies to derive pooled effect sizes or conclusions. Analyzes and synthesizes numerical data from primary studies to draw overarching conclusions. Provides a more rigorous and quantitative assessment of research findings across studies.

  1. Scoping Review

Aims to map the existing literature on a broad topic or research area. Identifies gaps in current knowledge and outlines the breadth of existing research. Typically, broader in scope and less stringent in methodology than systematic reviews.

  1. Integrative Review

Integrates findings from various sources, including empirical and theoretical literature. Aims to provide a comprehensive understanding or a new conceptual framework for a particular topic. May synthesize literature from multiple disciplines to offer a holistic view.

  1. Critical Review

Offers critical analysis, appraisal, and evaluation of existing literature. Discusses strengths, weaknesses, limitations, and biases in previous research. Challenges or questions prevailing assumptions or methodologies within a field.

  1. Rapid Review

Conducted under a shortened timeframe to address urgent or time-sensitive research questions. Utilizes more streamlined review methods to quickly synthesize and present findings. Aims to balance the need for rapid dissemination with maintaining a certain level of rigor. Review papers in academic journals play a crucial role in consolidating, critiquing, and synthesizing existing knowledge within various fields. Understanding the different types of review papers aids researchers in choosing the appropriate approach to address specific research questions and contribute meaningfully to the scholarly discourse within their disciplines.

  Research article writing for academic journals

Absolutely, writing a research article for an academic journal is a meticulous process that involves various key steps to ensure its quality, credibility, and suitability for publication. Clearly outline the purpose, scope, and objectives of your study. Choose a research topic that aligns with your expertise and addresses gaps in the existing literature. Develop clear and specific research questions or hypotheses to guide your study.

Literature Review

Conduct a thorough review of existing literature related to your research topic. Identify gaps, controversies, or areas needing further exploration within the literature. Build a theoretical foundation or conceptual framework based on the literature review.

Methodology and Study Design

Clearly describe the study design, methodology, and data collection methods. Explain the procedures used for data collection, including tools, samples, and ethical considerations. Outline the analysis techniques and tools used to interpret collected data.

Results Presentation

Present your research findings in a clear, concise, and structured manner. Utilize visuals to effectively represent data, trends, or statistical analyses. Present results objectively without bias or subjective interpretation.

Discussion and Interpretation

Interpret your findings in relation to your research questions or hypotheses. Discuss how your findings align or differ from existing literature. Address limitations of the study and propose avenues for future research.

Writing the Manuscript

Follow the journal’s guidelines and structure your article (abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion). Use clear, concise language, and follow the appropriate academic writing style. Ensure accurate citations and references following the specified citation style (APA, MLA, etc.).

Revision and Proofreading

Seek feedback from peers or mentors for revisions and improvements. Carefully proofread the manuscript for grammatical errors, clarity, and coherence.


Adhere to the journal’s submission guidelines and formatting requirements. Write a compelling cover letter highlighting the significance of your research and its suitability for the journal [23]. Crafting a research article for an academic journal requires meticulous planning, attention to detail, and adherence to scholarly standards [24]. It’s an iterative process involving literature review, methodological rigor, clear presentation of results, and effective communication of findings. Each step contributes to the creation of a robust manuscript poised for publication and meaningful contribution to the scholarly community within your field.


In conclusion, the process of selecting an appropriate academic journal for publishing your research is a crucial step that requires careful consideration and strategic planning. Choosing the right journal significantly impacts the visibility, credibility, and reception of your work within the academic community. Ensure the journal’s scope and audience align with the focus and objectives of your research.  Assess the impact factor, rankings, peer review process, and editorial board to gauge the journal’s credibility. Adhere to submission guidelines and consider open access options to maximize the dissemination of your research. Utilize databases, review published articles, and seek recommendations to identify potential journals. Have backup journals in mind in case your primary choice does not accept your submission. Seek advice and feedback from peers, mentors, or advisors to refine your selection process. Selecting the right journal requires a balanced assessment of various factors, considering both the relevance to your research and the credibility of the publication outlet. This strategic approach enhances the chances of successful publication and ensures your research reaches the intended audience, contributing meaningfully to the academic discourse within your field. Ultimately, a well-considered choice of journal maximizes the impact and recognition of your research within the academic community.



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CITE AS: Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma Obeagu, Chibunna Matthew Igwe, Esther Ugo Alum, Okechukwu Paul-Chima Ugwu, Val Hyginus Udoka Eze, Fabian Chukwudi Ogenyi, Jovita Nnenna Ugwu, Chinyere N. Ugwu, Micheal. B. Okon, Chidinma Esther Eze and Jude U. Aleke (2023). Academic Journal Writing and Types of Journals. INOSR Experimental Sciences 12(2):205-213.